R&D has a broad portfolio of research and development projects, on both an international and national level. R&D initiates projects, and participates as partner in projects coordinated by other institutions.
Calibration and Validation of Satellites The overall goal is to establish ASC as a reliable partner for ground truthing of Earth Observing Satellites (EOS). Reliable contribution to Cal/Val activities requires both appropriate state-of-the-art hardware, knowledge and software tools to report to satellite operators. Michael Gausa in the R&D department is the PI for all Cal/Val projects.
ASC was approved as a calibration and validation facility for ESAs ADM-Aeolus and European Comission’s Sentinel 5P in 2014.
ADM-Aeolus is an ESA Earth Explorer satellite mission containing a Doppler wind lidar – ALADIN. ASC is approved as a calibration and validation facility for the aerosol products from the satellite payload. The troposphere lidar and sun photometer data from CIMEL located at the ALOMAR observatory are key instruments in the validation project. The project has a duration of 3 years, and includes a preparation phase ending 1 month prior to launch, and an operational phase lasting two years. In addition to the validation of this satellite, the project will increase ASCs abilities to participate in future validation activities for satellites with polar and sun-synchronous orbits.
Sentinel-5P objectives are to provide operational space-borne observations in support to the operational monitoring of air quality, ozone and surface UV, and climate. The payload aboard the Sentinel-5P is a spectrometer that provides information about several trace gases in the atmosphere. To ensure the data product quality and relevance across Norway, ASC will monitor ozone, UV-radiation, aerosols and clouds. The ozone-lidar, troposphere-lidar, CIMEL and spectrometers located at ALOMAR observatory are key instruments in the validation project.
The EarthCARE (Earth Cloud Aerosol and Radiation Explorer) satellite mission aims to advance the understanding of the role that clouds and aerosols play in reflecting incident solar radiation back out to space and trapping infrared radiation emitted from Earths surface. The troposphere-lidar, sun/moon/sky photometer and CIMEL located at ALOMAR observatory will be used.
Atmospheric dynamics Research Infrastructure in Europe. It has been robustly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate throughout the troposphere all the way to the surface of Earth. A key part of the coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary-scale Rossby waves and gravity waves. Limited observation of the middle atmosphere and these waves in particular limits the ability to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models.
ARISE2 capitalizes upon the work of the EU-funded first ARISE project combining for the first time international networks with complementary technologies such as infrasound, lidar and airglow. This joint network provided advanced data products that started to be used as benchmarks for weather forecast models. The ARISE network also allows enhanced and detailed monitoring of other extreme events in the Earth system such as erupting volcanoes, magnetic storms, tornadoes and tropical thunderstorms. In order to improve the ability of the network to monitor atmospheric dynamics, ARISE2 proposes to extend:
I. The existing network coverage in Africa and the high latitudes II. The altitude range in the stratosphere and mesosphere III. The observation duration using routine observation modes, and to use complementary existing infrastructures and innovative instrumentations. Data will be collected over the long term to improve weather forecasting to monthly or seasonal timescales, to monitor atmospheric extreme events and climate change
Compared to the first ARISE project, ARISE2 focuses on the link between models and observations for future assimilation of data by operational weather forecasting models. Among the applications, ARISE2 proposes infrasound remote volcano monitoring to provide notifications to civil aviation. The data portal will provide high-quality data and advanced data products to a wide scientific community.
ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure) is a pan-European initiative consolidating actions amongst European partners producing high-quality observations of aerosols, clouds and trace gases. Different atmospheric processes are increasingly in the focus of many societal and environmental challenges, such as air quality, health, sustainability and climate change. ACTRIS aims to contribute in the resolving of such challenges by providing a platform for researchers to combine their efforts more effectively, and by providing observational data of aerosols, clouds and trace gases openly to anyone who might want to use them.
SIOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) is one of 21 international research infrastructure projects included in the Roadmap of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) and is currently being evaluated to become an ESFRI landmark. After a preparatory phase funded by the EU and an interim phase funded by the Research Council of Norway and in-kind contributions from its members, SIOS is now operational after the MoU was signed 26 January 2018.
The Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System (SIOS) is a distributed world-class research infrastructure that will establish a regional observational system in and around Svalbard to address Earth System Science (ESS) questions related to Global Change. SIOS is offering a single-point access to infrastructure, tools and services as well as providing a continuous development of methods, ground-based observations and a substantial capability for utilising remote sensing resources. SIOS will link with other observational infrastructures across the Arctic to share data and best practice, contributing to a pan-Arctic observational structure that facilitates better regional modelling and understanding of the role of the Arctic in the Earth System